In the quest to wean the nation off of fossil fuels, one imperative will remain non-negotiable: people want to stay warm in the winter. Central heat is one of civilization’s greatest achievements, and Americans are not going to give it up.
If work-from-home becomes more of the norm, there will be less traffic congestion and likely lower parking costs, taking away transit’s two main competitive advantages. Tax revenues will recover, so permanent reductions in service may not be as large as the drops in ridership would suggest.
Vanpools are the most cost effective and energy efficient of the major forms of public transit.
Ferries turn out to be pretty good performers. They carry a large number of passengers per trip and charge high enough fares to cover a good share of their costs. Farebox recovery rates for ferry services are higher than almost all bus-based transit systems
Increased costs per trip are a concern when the region has made a major commitment to transit as part of its land uses policies. Adding new transit riders is expensive and getting more so.